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» Parameter Estimation of Cobb Douglas Production Function with Multiplicative and Additive Errors using the Frequentist and Bayesian Approaches » J.O. Iyaniwura, A. Adedayo Adepoju and Oluwaseun A. Adesina ABSTRACT: Nonlinear Models are generally classified as intrinsically nonlinear and intrinsically linear based on the specification of the errors. This study was aimed at estimating the parameters of CobbDouglas production function with additive and multiplicative errors using the classical and Bayesian approaches. The classical nonlinear method considered is the GaussNewton iterative Method while the Bayesian estimation was carried out using the MetropoliswithinGibbs with independent normalGamma prior. For the classical, the results showed that the estimates of the parameters of the CobbDouglas function with additive errors performed better than those for the multiplicative errors. However, similar estimates were obtained for both multiplicative and additive errors for the Bayesian approach. Overall, the Bayesian method performed better than the classical approach. KEYWORDS:CobbDouglas Production function, GaussNewton Method, NormalGamma Prior, MCMC. » Received: 10 March 2018» Accepted: 30 September 2018 
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» A Modified Ratio Techniques in Successive Sampling on Two Occasions » K. O. Adetunji and A. O. Adejumo ABSTRACT: Successive sampling is a known technique that can be used in longitudinal surveys to estimate population parameter and measurement of change or sum of study variables and auxiliary variables. However, the problem of ratio estimation is incorporated to successive sampling on the samples selected over two occasions has been considered. This study aimed at proposed Ratio Estimator technique in the context of devising efficient sampling strategies for estimators. The three estimators used as the instrument for parameter estimation in the successive sampling are Simple Estimator (SEst), Linear Estimator (LEst) and proposed Ratio Estimator (PRATEst). The proposed Ratio Estimator procedure was obtained through the properties of biasness, mean square Error (MSE), minimum mean square Errors (MMSE) and Efficiency comparison (EC). Two sets of Real life data were used in this study. The first data was collected from National Population Commission (NPC) of the census conducted in Nigeria for year 1991 and 2006, also the second data set was collected from ministry of education and human capital development on the teachers and students enrolment for 2013/2014 and 2016/2017 academic sessions. In, conclusion, it is clear and also visible that proposed estimator (PRATEst) μ_PRATE=(˥x)/(˥y)*(˥z) is highly rewarding than conventional ones μ_SE=(˥x),(˥y) and (˥z) and μ_LE=(˥x)(˥y),(˥x)(˥z) and (˥y)(˥z) therefore, the proposed estimator is recommended for use in successive sampling scheme. KEYWORDS:Successive sampling, Ratio Estimator, Auxiliary Variable, Census, Students Enrolment. » Received: 22 October 2018» Accepted: 14 January 2019 
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» Towards Refining Unrated and Uninterested Items for Effective Collaborative Filtering Recommendations » Abba Almu, Abubakar Roko, Aminu Mohammed and Ibrahim Sa’idu ABSTRACT: Collaborative filtering recommender systems being the most successful and widely used plays an important role in providing suggestions or recommendations to users for the items of interest. However, many of these systems recommend items to individual users based on ratings which may not be possible if they are not sufficient due to the following problems: it may lead to the prediction of uninterested popular items already known to the users because of the penalty function employed to punish those items, the sparsity of the useritem rating matrix increases making it difficult to provide accurate recommendations and also it ignores the users general preferences on the recommended items whether they are of interest to users or not. Therefore, many times uninterested items can be found in the recommended lists of an individual user. This will make user to lose interest in the recommendations if these uninterested predicted items always appear in the lists. In this paper, we proposed a collaborative filtering recommendations refinement framework that combines the solutions to these three identified problems. The framework incorporates a popularise similarity function to reduce the influence of popular items during recommendations, an algorithm to fill up the missing ratings of unwanted recommendations in the useritem rating matrix thereby reducing the sparsity problem and finally an algorithm to solicit for user feedback on the recommended items to minimise uninterested recommendations. KEYWORDS:Collaborative Filtering Recommendations, Sparsity, User Preference, Popular items, Uninterested Recommended List. » Received: 8 November 2018» Accepted: 14 January 2019 
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» Evaluation of an Optical Character Recognition Model for Yoruba Text » Abimbola Akintola, Tunji Ibiyemi and Amos Bajeh ABSTRACT: The optical character recognition (OCR) for different languages has been developed and in use with diverse applications over the years. The development of OCR enables the digitization of paper document that would have been neglected over a period of time as well as serving as a form of backup for those documents. The system proposed is for isolated characters of Yoruba language. Yoruba language is a tonal language that carries accent on the vowel alphabets. The process used involves image gray scal, binarization, deskew, and segmentation. Thus, the OCR enable the system read the images and convert them to text data. The proposed model was evaluated using the information retrieval metrics: Precision and Recall. Results showed a significant performance with a recall of 100% in the sample document used, and precision results that varies between 76%, 97%, and 100% in the sample document. KEYWORDS:Recognition, binarization, image digitization, accuracy, Yoruba language. » Received: 19 October 2018» Accepted: 14 January 2019 
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» Balanced Incomplete Sequence Crossover Design for First Order Residual Effect » Lanre Adebara and Babatunde Lateef Adeleke ABSTRACT: Crossover designs are of the type in which sequence of different treatments are administered one at a time over a certain period of time, during which the presence of residual effect or rather carryover effect can longer be ignored. This paper therefore presents two first order residual effect, that is effect on the immediate next period after the period of treatment application. The first method constructs designs for any number of treatment, v for any prime number that has x=2 as primitive root of the associated Galois field. using the two algorithms I_{1} = ( x^{0}, x^{m} , x^{2m},..., x^{2kx})and I_{2} = (x^{1}, x^{m+1}, x^{2m+1},..., x^{2kx+1}). The second method is also for the construction of designs for any number treatment, v for any prime number that has x=3 as the primitive root of the corresponding Galois field with two algorithms I_{1} = (x^{0}, x^{m}, x^{2m},..., x^{2k+mx1}) and I_{2} = (x^{1}, x^{m+1}, x^{2m+1},..., x^{2k+mx}). By exploiting cyclic development of v1 initial sequences of treatment order, universally optimal balanced crossover design of the first order for the two methods were constructed in this paper and the two methods generate every nonzero elements of any prime number. KEYWORDS:Crossover Design; Galois Field; Balanced Design; Initial Sequence; Cyclic Development. » Received: 12 November 2018» Accepted: 25 January 2019 
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» Survival Analysis of Breast Cancer in Nigeria » Osuolale Peter Popoola, Ayomide Oluwaghenga and Abosede Titilope Popoola ABSTRACT: In Nigeria as well as in other parts of the world, Breast cancer remained the most common cancer among women and the second leading cause of death. This research attempts to carry out data analysis on breast cancer data in Nigeria so as to determine the trend movement of the disease, determine how age influences the survival of patient, test for the significance in the distribution of survival time of the patients, measure the average survival time of the patients after treatment, estimate the time to event of interest (death) and estimate the probability of survival. The results of various data analysis showed that the median survival time until the event occurs is 15 days for male and 13 days for female. KaplanMeier Estimator shows that female response to treatment faster than male patients with the mean time of 24.8 days and t 21.90 days respectively, the survival plot shows that the probabilities of surviving is decreasing as time progresses, it also revealed that in all age groups, there is a decrease in their chance of surviving. The result of cox proportional hazard regression analysis shows that Age and Length have high statistical significant coefficients which means that the risk of death is higher in Year with a positive value while the risk of death is low in Age, Sex, and Length spent in hospital with negative value of coefficient. The Hazard Ratio (HR) of 0.993186, indicates a strong relationship between the patients’ Age and patients risk of death and between the time spent in the hospital and decrease risk of death. The beta coefficient for sex gives 0.1828 indicates that female patients have lower risk of death than male patients and the hazard ratio gives 0.832338. The Wilcoxon test and Long rank test revealed that there are no statistically differences in the survival rates between males and females but there is a statistically differences in the survival rates between Dead and Alive. It also shows that female patients have lower risk of death than male patients with the beta coefficient of 0.1828 while hazard ratio gives 0.832338. KEYWORDS:Survival Analysis, Breast Cancer, Kapler Meier Estimator, LogRank Test and Wilcoxon Rank Test and Cox Proportion Regression. » Received: 5 December 2018» Accepted: 29 January 2019 
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» Differential Equation as a Solution for Population Problems » Y. Zakari and A. Hassan ABSTRACT: World of mathematical ideas, where a model is established, we then manipulate the model by the help of already existed techniques or computer numerical computations, finally we then investigate the model that will lead us to the solution to our mathematical problems related to the model, which is translated into a real life applications. The application of first order differential equation in Growth and Decay problems will study the method of variable separable and the model of Malthus (Malthusian population model), where we use the methods to find the solution to the population problems which are of use in mathematics, physics and biology especially in dealing with problems involving growth and decay problems that requires the use of Malthus model. KEYWORDS:Malthus model, Differential equation, Growth rate, Decay rate, Population rate, Population, Order, Attenuation. » Received: 19 January 2018» Accepted: 7 February 2019 
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» Arabic Digital Resources in the Service of Learning » Ali Sadiqui, Ahmed Zinedine and Mohamed El Hari ABSTRACT: Videopedagogy knows a growing popularity, due to its many supposed virtues. Compared to static documents, the animations have the power to attract attention and increase the interest and motivation of the reader. Unfortunately, the resources available on the Internet in Arabic language in this area do not reflect its position as a language used by more than 300 million people. Our aim in this contribution is to present a project that was designed and steered in this context. This project is motivated by the desire to integrate video animations as educational support for learners of the OFPPT (Office de Formation Professionnelle et de Promotion du Travail) as well as to contribute to enrich the Arabic content on the Internet by quality products in this area. We then, in collaboration with a team of practitioners and with the participation of some learners designed and tested a series of video animation in Arabic language allowing the acquisition of theoretical concepts taught in the classroom. The final product has positively impacted the assimilation of courses. This contribution will return to all the components of this project. KEYWORDS:Arabic language, Arabic digital resources, Videopedagogy, reverse class. » Received: 11 November 2018» Accepted: 25 January 2019 
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» Clonal Selection Algorithm for Feature Level Fusion of Multibiometric Systems » Oluyinka T. Adedeji, Adeleye S. Falohun, Oluwaseun M. Alade, Elijah O. Omidiora and Stephen O. Olabiyisi ABSTRACT: Multimodal biometric makes use of two or more biometric modalities to overcome some of the limitations of unimodal biometric system. Feature level fusion has been shown to provide a more secured recognition system with higher performance accuracy. However, associated with feature level fusion is the problem of high dimensionality of the combined feature, therefore in this paper, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is used for feature extraction while fusion is performed at the feature selection phase using Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA). The performances of the bimodal systems indicate increase in recognition accuracy compared to their unimodal counterparts. KEYWORDS:Biometrics, Fusion, Multimodal, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Clonal Selection Algorithm. » Received: 11 October 2018» Accepted: 26 November 2018 
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» Development of a Modularized Model for a MultiProcess Food Manufacturing System using Hierarchical Timed Coloured Petri Nets » Rafiu A. Ganiyu, Oladotun O. Okediran, Busirat O. Muraina and Taofeeq A. Badmus ABSTRACT: Concerted efforts are being made yearly by researchers to improve food manufacturing systems through modelling in order to meet current and future market demands. However, most existing empirical studies are limited to development of nonmodular models for multiprocess food manufacturing systems. Hence, in this paper, a Hierarchical Timed Coloured Petri Net model, which could accommodate future modifications, was developed for Gari manufacturing system. The model comprises Peeling, Washing, Grating, Fermentation, Dewatering, Pulverization, Garifying, Cooling, Sifting and Packaging modules. The model was simulated to determine the average times used and utilizedresources rates for productions of 200, 400 and 600 kg of Gari, and to study what could happen to production times in the possibility of additional resources for productions of 800 and 1000 kg of Gari. The model was validated at 5% significant level using statistical tTest. The model could be efficiently utilized to study and improve Gari production working plan. KEYWORDS:Petri Nets, Food, Gari production, Module, Process, Model. » Received: 26 October 2018» Accepted: 14 January 2019 
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» Time Series Analysis of Brent Crude Oil Prices Per Barrel: A BoxJenkins Approach » Adebowale Olusola Adejumo and James Daniel ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at analyzing the Brent Crude Oil Price Per Barrel. The data was extracted from the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Bulletin and it covered the period of January 1985 to September 2016. The Box and Jenkins approach of model identification, parameter estimation and diagnostic checking was adopted in the analysis with the aid of Splus Package. In view of the above problem, this research was set to: explore and explain the behavior of the series; determine the best model; and forecast future values of the series. With the aid of SPlus programming ware, R language ware; ARIMA (2,1,2) (2,0,0) [12] was reached as an optimum and parsimonious model for the series. An arithmetic increase in the price was forecast. KEYWORDS:Autocorrelation, Partial Autocorrelation, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA), Autoregressive (AR), Moving Average (MA), Differencing, Brent Crude Oil, Stationary Series. » Received: 27 January 2018» Accepted: 6 April 2018 
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» Performance Evaluation of a Cloudbased Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) » Jinmisayo Awokola, Justice Emuoyibofarhe and Funmi Ajala ABSTRACT: In the field of medical informatics, there has been a paradigm shift from the adoption of the conventional Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) to cloudbased PACS because of the costeffectiveness and storage computational efficiency. However, cloudplugged technologies are subject to security and network performance issues because of the internetworking and interoperability over the internet. Hence, this work focused on the development and evaluation of a secured cloudbased PACS framework so as to assess the usability of the technology in developing countries of the World through a case study approach. KEYWORDS:. » Received: 19 August 2018» Accepted: 3 March 2019 
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» Facial Recognition System: A Shift in Students Attendance Management » Kehinde Sotonwa and Oluwashina Oyeniran ABSTRACT: It was observed that the habitual method of taking attendance easily allow impersonation and time consuming. In the global community, various facial recognition based attendance frameworks have being proposed and successfully implemented, many of which are of one limitation or the other. Hence, this study proposed a multialgorithm approach to design and implement an automated and reliable system using biometric for effective attendance taking in Nigerian institutions. The system employed bimodal biometric technique for combining Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) for feature extraction and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) combined with Support Vector Machine (SVM) for classification. For the design and implementation, the system made use of the inbuilt webcam to capture its images for enrolment and verification. The system was trained with five hundred registered and fifty unregistered facial images. KEYWORDS:PCA, HOG, ANN, SVM, C#, SQL. » Received: 21 January 2019» Accepted: 3 March 2019 
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» An Enhanced Round Robin Virtual Machine Load Balancer for Cloud Infrastructure » Timothy Moses, Edward O. Agu, Okwori Anthony Okpe and John A. Oladunjoye ABSTRACT: With continuous increase in volume of data and its computational capacity in cloud, support for users request in cloud cannot be ignored. Considering problem of load imbalance resulting in high throughput and response time, there is the need therefore to develop a better model that will improve resource utility and performance of distributed systems so as to reduce response and processing time while providing better Virtual Machine (VM) efficiency. This paper analysed Round Robin load balancing algorithm and the deficiencies of this algorithm served as a basis for improvement in the proposed load balancer. The proposed algorithm has three phases; VM categorization phase that rearrange VMs in the increasing order of their processing speed with 80% of total threshold value of each VM computed. Allocation phase helps find suitable VM for execution of cloudlet and the reliability assessment phase ensures that each VM performs at it optimal level before its consideration for allocation of cloudlets. An extensive simulation was carried out to evaluate the proposed algorithm using cloud analyst simulator. Results obtained from simulation shows that the proposed algorithm yields better response time, datacentre processing time and a lower turnaround time than the existing round robin load balancing algorithm. KEYWORDS:Virtual machine, datacentre, virtualization, threshold value, cloudlet, user base, turnaround time, load balancer. » Received: 9 January 2019» Accepted: 3 March 2019 
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» Construction of Steiner Triple System STS(2n +1) from a Class of Pairwise Balanced Designs » Osuolale Peter Popoola, Benjamin A. Oyejola, Ayanniyi Ayanrinde and Matthew Odusina ABSTRACT: Pairwise Balanced Design (PBD) is a pair (X, Ɓ) where X is a set of treatments and Ɓ is a collection of subsets of X called blocks, such that each pair of treatments is contained in precisely one block. PBD plays important role in design theories, it is used to construct other important designs such as Steiner Triple System (STS). A Steiner triple system is an ordered pair (X, Ɓ), where X is a finite set of points (Treatments) and B is a set of all 3element subsets of X called triples, such that each pair of distinct elements of X occurs together in exactly one triple of B. The research work aims at applying a class of PBD(n, K, 1) when K ={3, 4} and λ = 1 to construct STS(2n +1). Theorem was proposed and proved and a certain inequality was derived as condition which must be satisfied for the construction to hold. Thus, for all n ≡ 1, 3(mod 3) of any PBD(n, {3, 4}) there exists an STS(2n +1) provided n ≥ l(s 1) + 1, where l is the size of the largest block of the PBD and s is the size of the smallest block of the PBD. Hence, STS(21) was constructed from a PBD(10, {3, 4}, 1). KEYWORDS:Block Designs, Pairwise Balanced Design (PBD), Steiner Triple System (STS) and Combinatorial System. » Received: 14 January 2019» Accepted: 13 March 2019 
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» Construction of Congruent Classes of Pairwise Balanced Designs using Lotto Designs » Osuolale Peter Popoola and Benjamin A. Oyejola ABSTRACT: Among the Incomplete Block Designs(IBDs), Balanced Incomplete Block Designs (BIBDs) are mostly studied. However, BIBD is not available for all parameters of most designs therefore limited in applications. So, in place of BIBD there is need for another incomplete block design that could be used for varieties of applications. Thus, the need for Pairwise Balanced Designs (PBDs). PBD (n, K, λ) is a block design where n is the number of treatments, where K= {k1, k2…, kb} is the set of sizes of block and λ is number of time a pair of treatment appear together within blocks. Also, little is known about the construction of PBDs using Lotto Designs (LDs). An LD(n, k, p t) is a set of kblocks of an ntreatments such that any psets intersect at least one kblock in t number of times. The aim of the study is to provide a simple method for constructing two classes of PBD(n, K, λ) when = K {3, 4} or {3, 4, 5} using appropriate LDs; establish conditions for the identification of LDs that could use to construct the classes of PBDs; and derive theorems and simple steps for the construction of PBDs from LDs. The research work utilized the Li’s inequality to obtain LDs that are PBDs using r and λ obtained from the classes of PBDs on the Li inequality. Some LDs were generated and based on the structure of the classes of the PBDs to be constructed, some conditions were imposed. Hence some LDs were found to qualify as PBDs. Theorems were proposed and proved. Hence, the following results were obtained: Any LD(n, k, p, t) satisfying the conditions: 3 ≤ k ≤ n and n = p qualify as PBDs and the proposed theorems were: (a) 2LDs(n, k, p, t)(n, k+1, p, t) is a PBD(n, {3, 4}) if and only if n ≡ 0, 1 (mod 3); (b). 3LDs(n, k, p, t)(n, k+1, p, t)(n, k+2, p, t) is a PBD(n, {3, 4, 5}) if and only if n ≡ 2, 3 (mod 4). Thus, two classes of PBDs(n, K, λ) when K= {3, 4}) and K= {3, 4, 5} were constructed from the appropriate LDs for all admissible ntreatments satisfying the specified conditions. KEYWORDS:Block Designs, Incomplete Block Designs (IBD), Balanced Incomplete Block Designs (BIBDs), Pairwise Balanced Designs (PBDs) and Lotto Designs (LDs). » Received: 12 January 2019» Accepted: 3 March 2019 
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» Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Scheduling Model for Jobs on Cloud » Alaba T. Owoseni, Olatunde Iyaniwura and Lukman Adebayo Ogundele ABSTRACT: Cloud computing is a special networkbased computation that makes computational services available to customers on demand. In this computational paradigm, resources are managed by organizations that have all it takes to purchase and manage them since they are cost intensive and as such, the needy of computerbased services pay the organizations as virtualized resources are used to provide services to the needy. On cloud, effective and efficient computation depends on the technique used in scheduling tasks among computational resources especially the virtual machines and this has called for many researches from various quarters. In this paper, we propose an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm whose parameters (cognitive and social coefficients and inertial weight) are adaptive as a measure against premature convergence of the algorithm. CloudSim simulator was used to simulate the operation of the algorithm and the performance was compared with classic particle swarm optimization method for better result. KEYWORDS:Adaptive particle swarm optimization, inertial weight, cloud computing, cognitive coefficient, social coefficient, makespan. » Received: 15 January 2019» Accepted: 13 March 2019 
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